AUDIT for the follow-up of sufferers with esophageal cancer, showing its clinical applicability inside the early diagnosis of a second key tumor. The exact same strategy may be utilized to follow-up on oral cancer individuals, encouraging them to quit their damaging habits and advertising superior well being. The assessment of nicotine dependence is still not a routine procedure in initial oncological assessment, despite the fact that continued smoking following a cancer diagnosis is linked with a poor prognosis. Almeida et al. [54] described high nicotine dependence amongst patients with head and neck cancer and highlighted the need to assess the smoking profile of cancer individuals. In a different study, Schiller et al. [55] reported some aspects on the profile of individuals with head and neck cancer related to tobacco and alcohol consumption applying the identical instruments.PDGF-BB Protein supplier The authors also emphasized the situation of several addictions andInt. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19,9 ofthe lack of smoking and alcohol cessation programs in this precise group of sufferers in cancer remedy services. As a limiting aspect of our work, we have to emphasize that it was not achievable to carry out a complementary immunohistochemical evaluation for all samples. five. Conclusions Motivating overall health experts, particularly oncologists, to evaluate smokers’ nicotine dependence and encouraging them to participate in cessation applications are essential educational measures and can undoubtedly effect the outcomes not just for disease prevention, whether or not malignant or not, related to tobacco and alcohol dependence, but additionally towards the therapy response. The FTCD and AUDIT questionnaires designed to evaluate and estimate the degree of exposure and dependence to tobacco and alcohol combined with straightforward gene expression tests could be valuable tools to assess the risks of establishing oral cancer.Author Contributions: Conceptualization: C.M.B., C.F.L.C. and J.D.A. Methodology: C.F.L.C., P.P.d.B. and M.G.O.A. Formal evaluation: C.M.B., C.F.L.C. and M.B.N. Investigation: C.M.B., J.F.S.C. and M.B.N.P. Sources: C.M.B. plus a.A. Writing–original draft preparation: C.M.B. along with a.A.Serpin B9 Protein Gene ID Writing–review and editing: C.M.B., J.D.A. and F.D.N. Supervision: C.F.L.C. Project administration: J.D.A. Funding acquisition: J.D.A. All authors have study and agreed for the published version of the manuscript. Funding: This analysis was funded by grant 2016/08633-0 from the S Paulo Analysis Foundation (FAPESP).PMID:23907521 Institutional Critique Board Statement: The study was conducted in accordance with the recommendations of your Declaration of Helsinki and approved by the Ethics Committee of Institute of Science and Technologies of S Josdos Campos, S Paulo State University–Unesp (CAAE No. 42387315.0.0000.0077). Informed Consent Statement: All participants received details about the aims of the study and agreed to participate by signing the informed consent kind. Data Availability Statement: Not applicable. Acknowledgments: The authors would like to thank the Head and Neck Surgery Department with the Celso Pierro Hospital, Pontifical Catholic University of Campinas, for the precious contribution to this study. We also thank Fl io Francisco de Godoy Peres as well as the Municipal Overall health Division of S Sebasti city, S Paulo, for their collaboration with this study. Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest. The funders had no role inside the style from the study; inside the collection, analyses, or interpretation of information; in the writing with the manuscript, or.