; SAEs: Significant adverse events; TEAEs: Treatment-emergent adverse events; TLC: Total lung capacity Acknowledgements The study was sponsored by Novartis Pharma Schweiz AG. The authors thank the doctor investigators who contributed to patient enrolment, collectively with all the nursing and technical employees at each participating centre. For statistical assistance within the pooled analysis, the authors thank Giovanni Bader from Novartis Pharma AG, Switzerland. The clinical trial was conducted in collaboration with THERAMetrics (previously Pierrel Analysis), who monitored the conduct from the study, performed randomisation and were accountable for the collection on the data. The authors have been assisted in the preparation in the manuscript by THERAMetrics (previously Pierrel Research) and Rohit Bhandari (skilled medical writer; Novartis) for assistance inside the preparation of this manuscript. Writing help was funded by Novartis Pharma AG, Switzerland. Funding Study was funded by Novartis Pharma AG, Switzerland. Writing assistance was funded by Novartis Pharma AG, Switzerland.Salomon et al. Respiratory Investigation (2017) 18:Web page 7 ofAvailability of data and components Trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01699685). The datasets utilised and/or analysed for the duration of the present study obtainable in the corresponding author on affordable request.IL-34, Mouse (HEK293, His) All information generated or analysed for the duration of this study are included in this published report and its supplementary info files. Authors’ contributions All authors have provided substantial contribution for the study conception and design and style, acquisition of information, or analysis and interpretation of data. All authors have been involved in drafting/revising this manuscript for crucial intellectual content material and have offered final approval on the version to become published. Competing interests Corinne Wild (CW) is actually a full-time employee of Novartis Pharma Schweiz AG. Andreas Clemens (AC) and Konstantinos Kostikas (KK) are full-time workers and shareholders of Novartis Pharma AG. Thomas Geiser (TG) has received advisory board and speaker costs from Novartis. Joerg Salomon (JS), JeanWilliam Fitting (J-WF), Thomas Sigrist (TS), Jean-Georges Frey (J-GF), Guido Domenighetti (GD) and Daiana Stolz (DS), Alexander J.FGF-4, Human (166a.a) Turk (AT), Andrea Azzola (AA), Ulrich Schmidt (US) and Martin Brutsche (MB) have no conflict of interests associated to this manuscript.PMID:24268253 Consent for publication Not applicable. Ethics approval and consent to participate The study protocol and all amendments were reviewed by the Independent Ethics Committee or Institutional Evaluation Board for each center. Lead Ethic Committee: Ethikkommission des Kantons St. Gallen (Reference Quantity: EKSG 12/093/L/1B). Sub-ethic committees: Kantonale Ethikkommission Bern (Reference Number: 161/12), Comitato etico cantonale (Ticino) (Reference Number: Rif. CE 2618), Commission cantonale valaisanne d’ hique m icale (Reference Number: CCVEM 037/12), Commission cantonale d’ hique de la recherche sur l’ re humain (Reference Number: 334/12), Kantonale Ethikkommission (Aargau) (Reference Number: 2012/062), Kantonale Ethikkommission Basel (Reference Number: 246/12), and Kantonale Ethikkommission Z ich (Reference Quantity: KEK-ZH-Nr. 2012-0396). This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01699685). The study was conducted in accordance using the ethical principles in the Declaration of Helsinki. Written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Summary Indacaterol and glycopyrronium showed a stronger b.