T HIF-1 stabilization in combination with Lcn2 is sufficient for IL-6 secretion, linking HIF-1 –Cathepsin S Protein Synonyms regulated genes with inflammatory pathways. HIF-1 stabilization in combination with Lcn2 isn’t adequate to induce IL-8 or CCL20 secretion, suggesting that additional pathways are activated in response to siderophore-Lcn2 stimulation that enhance inflammation. IL-8 production by epithelial cells is regulated by a combination of MAPK and NF- B signaling pathways (18). Microarray analysis in response to therapy with Ent indicated upregulation of dual-specificity phosphatases (DUSPs), indicating that MAPK signaling is involved in IL-8 MFAP4 Protein Biological Activity secretion in response to siderophore-Lcn2. In summary, our benefits introduce a novel role for Lcn2 as a rheostat that modulates the response to iron chelation by bacterial siderophores. We propose a model in which a modest volume of Ent may be bound and neutralized by Lcn2 (Fig. 7A), resulting in low levels of Lcn2-induced cytokine secretion. Nevertheless, high levels ofEnt (Fig. 7B) or Ybt (Fig. 7C) can overwhelm Lcn2 binding capacity, causing the accumulation of unbound siderophores. These siderophores chelate host cellular iron and, in mixture with Lcn2, induce robust secretion of IL-6, CCL20, and IL-8 in airway epithelial cells. Ent induces HIF-1 stabilization, and HIF-1 in mixture with Lcn2 is enough to induce IL-6. In contrast, HIF-independent pathways probably are expected to augment IL-8 and CCL20 expression. DFO and Ybt also combine with Lcn2 to induce inflammation, indicating this can be a generalized response to siderophore-mediated iron starvation. In this way, Lcn2 can avoid iron sequestration by Ent with out triggering a substantial immune response but can potently upregulate inflammation when overwhelmed by siderophores that perturb epithelial cell iron homeostasis.ACKNOWLEDGMENTSThis study was supported by Public Well being Service grant GM085612 from the National Institute of Basic Health-related Sciences (M.A.B.), CA148828 in the National Cancer Institute (Y.M.S.), and also a University of Michigan Rackham predoctoral grant (V.I.H.), and it was partially supported byiai.asm.orgInfection and ImmunitySiderophores with Lcn2 Induce Cytokine SecretionUniversity of Michigan Cancer Center Support grant P30 CA046592 from the National Institutes of Well being (R.K.). We thank Harry Mobley, Marc Hershenson, and Beth Moore for guidance and manuscript revisions. We have no conflicting monetary interests to report.
ResearchAuthor’s Selection?2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. This paper is available on line at mcponline.orgProteomic Evaluation of Altered Extracellular Matrix Turnover in Bleomycin-induced Pulmonary FibrosisSMartin L. Decaris, Michelle Gatmaitan, Simplicia FlorCruz, Flora Luo, Kelvin Li, William E. Holmes, Marc K. Hellerstein? Scott M. Turner, and Claire L. EmsonFibrotic illness is characterized by the pathological accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Surprisingly, very little is recognized in regards to the synthesis and degradation prices in the lots of proteins and proteoglycans that constitute wholesome or pathological extracellular matrix. A comprehensive understanding of altered ECM protein synthesis and degradation through the onset and progression of fibrotic disease will be immensely worthwhile. We’ve developed a dynamic proteomics platform that quantifies the fractional synthesis prices of substantial numbers of proteins through stable isotope labeling and LC/MS-based mass iso.