Imply hepatic tissue antioxidant concentrations approached these in p38γ Source manage rats; in hypercholesterolemic rats that received the Piper betle extract, the imply hepatic vitamin C level approached that in handle rats (Table 3).Evidence-Based Complementary and Option MedicineTable 3: Mean activities of enzymatic antioxidants and mean levels of nonenzymatic antioxidants and malondialdehyde in hepatic tissue samples from Wistar rats. Parameters tested SOD CAT GPX GST GSH VIT-C VIT-E MDAGroup I (control) 7.1 1.4 53.eight 3.5 31.3 5.5 17.0 four.4 three.three 0.1 2.3 1.4 1.9 1.two 1.two 0.Group II hypercholesterolemic, saline treated four.five 0.5a 40.1 four.0a 13.four 1.1a 8.four 1.0a 2.0 0.1a 1.6 0.6a 1.0 0.4a 3.eight 0.4aGroup III hypercholesterolemic, lovastatin treated five.0 0.4ab 42.9 three.2b 20.eight 1.3ab 14.4 1.8b 2.6 0.1ab 1.7 0.8a 1.3 0.6ab 1.eight 0.3abGroup IV hypercholesterolemic, Piper betle extract treated five.3 0.2a 43.eight 0.2ac 21.five 2.1ab 14.5 0.6abc two.7 0.1ab 1.9 0.7ab 1.five 0.1abc two.0 0.2abcGroup V hypercholesterolemic, eugenol treated 5.five 0.3abc 44.6 5.7abd 22.four 0.7ab 14.7 0.6abcd 2.eight 0.1abd 1.eight 0.6abcd 1.five 0.7bcd 1.6 0.1acdSampling accomplished ten days immediately after induction of hypercholesterolemia and 7 days after start of therapy. Values represent the imply SD for T-type calcium channel Biological Activity observations produced on five rats in each group. Units: CAT–moles of H2 O2 utilized/min/mg protein. SOD–units/mg protein. Gpx–moles of GSH oxidized/min/mg protein. GST–moles of c-DNB formed/min/mg protein. GSH–microgram of decreased glutathione/mg protein. Vitamins C and E–micrograms/mg protein. MDA–moles of MDA produced/mg protein. Statistical evaluation: one-way evaluation of variance (ANOVA), where significant, post hoc testing (least substantial distinction) accomplished for intergroup comparisons. CAT: catalase, SOD: superoxide dismutase, Gpx: glutathione peroxidase, GST: glutathione-S-transferase, GSH: reduced glutathione, MDA: malondialdehyde, H2 O2 : hydrogen peroxide, c-DNB: 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. a Statistically substantial distinction ( 0.05) when compared with group I values. b Statistically substantial difference ( 0.05) when compared with group II values. c Statistically considerable difference ( 0.05) when compared with group III values. d Statistically important difference ( 0.05) when compared with group IV values.3.6. MDA Concentrations in Hepatic Tissues of Wistar Rats (Table 3). The imply concentration of MDA in hepatic tissue samples from hypercholesterolemic, saline-treated rats was drastically ( 0.05) larger than that in manage rats (Table three). Despite the fact that the mean hepatic MDA concentrations in hypercholesterolemic rats that had been treated with lovastatin, Piper betle extract, or eugenol were significantly ( 0.05) lower than that in hypercholesterolemic, saline-treated rats, they remained substantially ( 0.05) larger than that in manage rats. Hypercholesterolemic rats treated with eugenol exhibited a considerably lower mean concentration of MDA than those treated together with the Piper betle extract. Interestingly, no significant differences were observed inside the mean hepatic tissue concentration of MDA in eugenol-treated or Piper betle extract-treated hypercholesterolemic rats, when compared with all the imply hepatic tissue concentrations noted in the lovastatin-treated hypercholesterolemic rats. 3.six.1. Histopathological Examination. Sections of hepatic tissue from the experimental groups of rats had been stained by H E and then subjected to histopathological examination by light microscopy (Figure 1). Sections of h.