Esent the suggests SEM of replicates within individual experiments.NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptSupplementary MaterialRefer to Web version on IKK-β Inhibitor web PubMed Central for supplementary material.AcknowledgmentsWe thank M. Carlson and M. Torres for their advice and encouragement, M. Schmidt for the Sak1 plasmid applied for in vitro kinase assays, M. Lee for his early contributions for the analysis of Reg1, and H. Lien for performing the mating efficiency assays. Funding: This function was supported by NIH grant GM059167 to H.G.D.Sci Signal. Author manuscript; readily available in PMC 2014 July 23.Clement et al.PageREFERENCES AND NOTES1. Gutkind JS. Regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling networks by G proteincoupled receptors. Sci. STKE. 2000; 2000 re1. 2. Sherwood NM, Krueckl SL, McRory JE. The origin and function on the pituitary adenylate cyclaseactivating polypeptide (PACAP)/glucagon superfamily. Endocr. Rev. 2000; 21:61970. [PubMed: 11133067] 3. Dohlman HG, Thorner JW. Regulation of G protein-initiated signal transduction in yeast: Paradigms and principles. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 2001; 70:70354. [PubMed: 11395421] four. Stone DE, Cole GM, de Barros Lopes M, Goebl M, Reed SI. N-myristoylation is required for function from the pheromone-responsive G protein of yeast: Conditional activation of the pheromone response by a temperature-sensitive N-myristoyl transferase. Genes Dev. 1991; five:1969981. [PubMed: 1936988] five. Song J, Dohlman HG. Partial constitutive activation of pheromone responses by a palmitoylationsite mutant of a G protein subunit in yeast. BRD3 Inhibitor Compound Biochemistry. 1996; 35:148064817. [PubMed: 8942643] 6. Torres MP, Clement ST, Cappell SD, Dohlman HG. Cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation and ubiquitination of a G protein subunit. J. Biol. Chem. 2011; 286:202080216. [PubMed: 21521692] 7. Cappell SD, Baker R, Skowyra D, Dohlman HG. Systematic analysis of vital genes reveals essential regulators of G protein signaling. Mol. Cell. 2010; 38:74657. [PubMed: 20542006] 8. Sreenivasan A, Kellogg D. The Elm1 kinase functions inside a mitotic signaling network in budding yeast. Mol. Cell. Biol. 1999; 19:7983994. [PubMed: 10567524] 9. Sutherland CM, Hawley SA, McCartney RR, Leech A, Stark MJ, Schmidt MC, Hardie DG. Elm1p is among the 3 upstream kinases for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SNF1 complex. Curr. Biol. 2003; 13:1299305. [PubMed: 12906789] 10. Carlson M, Osmond BC, Botstein D. Mutants of yeast defective in sucrose utilization. Genetics. 1981; 98:250. [PubMed: 7040163] 11. McCartney RR, Schmidt MC. Regulation on the Snf1 kinase. Activation needs phosphorylation of threonine 210 by an upstream kinase too as a distinct step mediated by the Snf4 subunit. J. Biol. Chem. 2001; 276:364606466. [PubMed: 11486005] 12. Hardie DG, Carling D, Carlson M. The AMP-activated/Snf1 protein kinase subfamily: Metabolic sensors from the eukaryotic cell. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 1998; 67:82155. [PubMed: 9759505] 13. Young ET, Dombek KM, Tachibana C, Ideker T. Many pathways are coregulated by the protein kinase Snf1 and also the transcription components Adr1 and Cat8. J. Biol. Chem. 2003; 278:261466158. [PubMed: 12676948] 14. Hedbacker K, Carlson M. SNF1/AMPK pathways in yeast. Front. Biosci. 2008; 13:2408420. [PubMed: 17981722] 15. Hong SP, Leiper FC, Woods A, Carling D, Carlson M. Activation of yeast Snf1 and mammalian AMP-activated protein kinase by upstream kinases. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2003; 100:88398843. [PubMed: 12847291].