outcomes showed that MPEE suppressed H22 cell development in vivo and enhanced the survival of tumor mice.The MPEE was characterized by LC-Q-TOF S and compounds were identified as outlined by mass CBP/p300 Inhibitor site spectrometry information under both adverse and constructive ESI mode (Added file three: Fig. S3). 67 ingredients using the relative content material more than one hundred ng were identified beneath negative ESI mode, which incorporated nine fatty Acyls, eight flavonoids and 4 benzopyrans [288] (Added file 4: Table S1). The most abundant element is 3,5,7-trihydroxy-2-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-chromen4-one, which belongs to flavonoids with molecular weight of 286.04 and retention time of six.74 min. Meanwhile, compound identification was performed in accordance with mass spectrometry information beneath positive ESI mode (Further file 3: Fig. S3), 20 components with the relative content material much more than 50 ng had been identified under good ESI mode (Added file five: Table S2), which integrated two flavonoids, 1 isoflavonoids, two prenol lipids, one kind of steroids and steroid derivatives, coumarins and derivatives and stilbenes [494]. The most abundant component is beta-patchoulene, which belongs to polycyclic hydrocarbons with molecular weight of 204.19 and retention time of 12.06 min.Zhou et al. Chin Med(2021) 16:Web page 12 ofFig. 7 MPEE activated ER strain in H22 cells. H22 cells have been treated with MPEE for 24 h as well as the total RNA was isolated. A Heatmap of clustered ER CYP3 Activator manufacturer stress-associated genes as evaluated by transcriptome analysis. B The mRNA levels for Rpl22l1, Rpl13a, Srprb, Srp19, Srpr, Gadd34, Atf6, Hspa5, Rps29, Srp14, Wfs1, Ddit3, Srp72 and Srp68 have been analyzed by qRT-PCR. C The levels of ER stress-associated proteins were analyzed by Western blot. Data were analyzed by ANOVA. p 0.05; p 0.01; p 0.001 compared to untreated groupDiscussion Compared with standard chemotherapeutics, natural compounds can exert potent antitumor impact with or without having minor adverse effects [55]. A number ofplant-derived natural items have been investigated for their antitumor activities [21, 23, 56]. Recently, it has been reported that bryophytes can induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrests [19, 57]. In this study, our final results showedZhou et al. Chin Med(2021) 16:Page 13 ofFig. 8 MPEE suppressed the migration of H22 cells in vitro. H22 cells were treated with unique concentrations of MPEE for 24 h and 48 h. The migration of H22 cells was observed by inverted microscope (A) and analyzed by Image J (B, C). Data have been analyzed by ANOVA. p 0.01; p 0.001 when compared with untreated groupthat MPEE inhibited HCC cell growth each in vitro and in vivo, which may induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of HCC cells by way of intrinsic- and ER stress-associated signaling pathways. The antiproliferative activity of MPEE was initially examined. The results showed that MPEE considerably inhibited the growth of H22, HepG2 and BEL-7404 cells. Cellular proliferation is primarily controlled by the cell cycle, which consists of four sequential phases (G0/G1, S, G2, and M) [58]. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and also the cyclins will be the important regulators of cell cycle transition [59, 60]. Cdk2 regulates the cell cycle transition from G1 to S phase [61]. Cyclin D1 is a different regulator that drives G1 to S phase progression and its dysregulation is usually regularly located in human cancers including HCC [62]. Cyclin B is mainly involved inside the completion of M phase [63]. In our study, we observed that low concentrations of MPEE remedy significa