gation in rabbits. It could substantially inhibit platelet aggregation in vivo and in vitro, and has a particular inhibitory effect on the activation from the endogenous coagulation program. It may generate a synergistic anticoagulant effect with warfarin. Research by Liu et al. (2000), Zang et al. (2007), and Zhang et al. (2013) showed that safflower yellow, the key active ingredient in Carthamus tinctorius L., can inhibit platelet adhesion, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release and boost the concentration of absolutely free Ca2+ ERĪ± Agonist MedChemExpress induced by platelet activating factor, considerably boost blood coagulation function, and has anti-thrombotic effects. Zhang et al. (2016)research in rats showed that the combined use of Carthamus tinctorius L. and warfarin drastically prolonged PT value and bleeding time, but has no effect around the blood concentration of warfarin. Panax notoginseng (Burkill) F.H. Chen (Sanqi): The dry radix et rhizome of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen has the effects of removing blood stasis, stopping bleeding, advertising blood circulation and relieving pain. Contemporary pharmacological effects involve hemoBradykinin B1 Receptor (B1R) Antagonist Compound stasis (promoting blood clotting), anti-thrombosis, advertising hematopoiesis, inhibiting the heart, expanding blood vessels, and lowering blood pressure. The primary components of Panax notoginseng are total saponins (Panax notoginseng saponins, PNS). PNS mainly consists of Panax notoginseng saponin Rg1 and Panax notoginseng saponin Rb1. It really is widely utilized within the clinical remedy of numerous cerebrovascular diseases. When combined with warfarin, it may improve the peak concentration of warfarin to improve its anticoagulant effect, and substantially improve the PT worth and INR worth of warfarin (p 0.05). The mechanism underlying the reduction of thrombosis could be through escalating the cAMP content in platelets and decreasing thromboxane A-2 (TXA-2) (Xu et al., 1997). For that reason, Panax notoginseng combined with warfarin may well trigger elevated INR and multiple subcutaneous hemorrhage and ecchymosis. Shunaoxin Dripping Pills: Shunaoxin Dripping Tablets are composed of Ligusticum chuanxiong and Angelica sinensis (42 mg/pill, Tianjin Zhongxin Pharmaceutical Group Co., Ltd. Sixth Chinese Medicine Factory). They’ve the effects of regulating qi, promoting blood circulation, removing blood stasis and relieving discomfort. Research by Feng Bo (Feng et al., 2015) have shown that Shunaoxin Dripping Tablets have a powerful anti-platelet aggregation impact in vitro, and with an increase in dose, the inhibition of platelet aggregation in vivo elevated slightly. Shunaoxin Dripping Pills can substantially lessen platelet aggregation induced by ADP and thrombin, and is positively correlated together with the dose. Higher doses combined with warfarin can drastically prolong APTT, PT, and thrombin time (TT), suggesting that Shunaoxin Dripping tablets possess the effect of anti-platelet aggregation, and high-dose combination with warfarin can boost the anticoagulant impact of warfarin.Reduction of Warfarin Metabolism Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen): Wang et al. (2010a) studied human cells and showed that tanshinone I, tanshinone IIA and cryptotanshinone strongly inhibited CYP1A2, moderately inhibited CYP2C9, tanshinone I and cryptotanshinone, weakly inhibited CYP3A4, dihydrotanshinone and competitively inhibited CYP1A2 and CYP2C9, but had no impact on CYP3A4. Qiu et al. (2008), Wang (2015) investigated the effects of various elements of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge on the activity of cy